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So why are most emerging adults so morally unmoored and religiously alienated? Mr. Smith suggests that religious institutions haven't done a very good job at educating kids in even the most basic tenets of their faiths. And religious parents often shirk their duties, too, perhaps believing the "cultural myth" that they have no influence over their children once they hit puberty. ~ Wall Street Journal Book Review: Souls in Transition
Click on arrows below to roll out information for each section.
Cultural Captives: The Beliefs and Behavior of American Young Adults by Steven Cable (2013) - There are many studies on the religious lives of youth and depending on the target group, method of research, and assumptions of the assessment team the results can be confusing. Often the studies seem to contradict one another, at least in the minor points. Probe Ministries set out to investigate the discrepancies, commission their own professional survey, and find where the clues are leading. The resulting book, Cultural Captives, is a very good summary of the many studies and how they relate to each other. It also demonstrates that there isn't as much disagreement as appears on the surface. The finding: "It's worse than we thought." Even the youth that stay in, or return to, the church are largely ignorant of the Christian faith and are being swept up in a cultural tide they are little equipped to counter. If you want to sort out the data and look toward some solutions get this book.
Once Captive - This is a set of fully integrated church based resources to introduce churches and small groups unfamiliar with thethe problem of youth being "culturally captive" and provides introductory video based material for an integrated learning experience. Includes video, workbooks, leader guides, sermon outlines, church assessment tools, and more.
For another video based review of the problem we also highly recommend that you get a free copy of the Toughest Test in College by filling out an online form. This documentary produced by Focus on the Family discusses the faith challenges most students face when they go to college – regardless of institution being Christian or not.
LCR - 70% stopped attending by age 23 (http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/printedition/life/20070807/d_churchdropout07.art.htm)
AG - (age group now early 20s-30s – millennials): ~2/3 of those that used to go regularly
Unexpected results of some studies (AG):
i. Going to Sunday school more often actually resulted in less Biblical worldview (on topics related to marriage, sex, abortion) than if only attended a few times! (See Geisler PPT#6)
ii. When did they start leaving?
1. Grade School—4%
2. Middle School—40%
3. High School—44%
4. College—Only 11%
iii. LCR survey when asked if they plan to return (see Geisler PPT #8):
1. Yes – 38%
2. Don’t know – 30%
3. No – 32%
4. Of those 38% that do return, often return with doubts motivated them to leave (see Geisler PPT#9).
a. 24% don’t believe Bible inspired
b. 42% don’t believe Biblically accounts
1. ~2/3 generally not alienated by organized religion (Baptist, Protestant, Catholic/Orthodox, Jewish, Mormon, Other Religion & None).
2. ~1/3 feel alienated (about half of the 1/3) or indifferent (the other half)
Thank you to Ryan Huxley of the IDEA Center for providing the following outline and much of the material on this page. (c) Ryan Huxley
Crossexamined.org - Youth Exodus Problem
Dr. Christian Smith (author of SIT):
1. Interview in CT http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2009/october/21.34.html
Christian Post - Survey: Churches Losing Youths Long Before College
Teenagers adopt common mainstream version of faith – Moralistic Therapeutic Deism (MTD): a faith in a moralistic deity who expects his human creatures to behave, to feel good about themselves, and to run their own lives without too much divine interference or intervention. Summary by Al Mohler on MTD
WSJ book review "The Fate of the Spirit: The wobbly religious lives of young people emerging into adulthood.” (10/2/2009)
Christianity Today interviews Dr. Smith about this book in “Lost in Transition” (10/9/2009)
Albert Mohler’s book review “Young Souls in Transition — Emerging Adults and the Church”
Princeton sociologist Robert Wuthnow in After the Baby Boomers (2011)
National Center for Family Integrated Churches. They have a free short film you can watch that covers some of the key points in about an hour.
The last two decades have seen substantial increase, and largest growth rate, in those without any religious affiliation, with the most prominent in younger adults.
About 3/4 leave, but it's a nuanced landscape (YLM)
Research suggests otherwise
“Unless religious leaders take younger adults more seriously, the future of American religion is in doubt” because the proportion of young adults identifying with mainline churches is “about half the size it was a generation ago. Evangelical Protestants have barely held their own.”
Princeton sociologist Robert Wuthnow in After the Baby Boomers (2011) in USA Today book review
“When our participants were asked to cite key influences in their conversion to atheism--people, books, seminars, etc. -- we expected to hear frequent references to the names of the "New Atheists." We did not. Not once. Instead, we heard vague references to videos they had watched on YouTube or website forums.” (emphasis added)
Larry Taunton's article Listening to Young Atheists in The Atlantic
“What can the poor Church even at its best do, what can evangelization even at its most inspired do, what can the poor family even at its purest and noblest do, if the children spend between fifteen and twenty years of their life--and indeed the most formative years of their life--in school and college in an atmosphere of formal denial of any relevance of God and spirit and soul and faith to the formation of their mind? The enormity of what is happening is beyond words.” (emphasis added) ...
“The Church and the family, each already encumbered with its own strains and ordeals, are fighting a losing battle so far as the bearing of the university on the spiritual health and wholeness of youth is concerned. All the preaching in the world, and all the loving care of even the best parents between whom there are no problems whatever, will amount to little, if not to nothing, so long as what the children are exposed to day in and day out for fifteen to twenty years in the school and university virtually cancels out morally and spiritually whatever they hear and see and learn at home and in the church. Therefore the problem of the school and university is the most critical problem afflicting western civilization. And here we meet – laughing and relaxing and enjoying ourselves and celebrating, as though nothing of this order of gravity were happening!” (emphasis added)
“The most important factor is parents. For better or worse, parents are tremendously important in shaping their children's faith trajectories. … But again, we emphasize above everything else the role of parents, not just in telling kids about faith but also in modeling it.” (emphasis added)
Dr. Christian Smith in Christianity Today interview (2009)
(more coming soon)
Ryan Huxley, BS, MS in Structural Engineering, UCSD; Certificate of Study in Christian Apologetics, BIOLA; Diploma in Christian Apologetics, Veritas International Institute of Christian Apologetics
© 2014 All rights reserved. This outline may be stored for non-commercial, individual or group educational use. It may be reproduced provided prior approval is given by the author, it is reproduced or stored in its entirety and full credit is given to its original source.